(51) GABAergic modulation of the activity of globus pallidus neurons in primates: in vivo analysis of the functions of GABA receptors and GABA transporters. Galvan A, Villalba RM, West SM, Maidment NT, Ackerson LC, Smith Y and Wichmann T. 2005. Journal of Neurophysiology, volume 94, pages 990-1000.
With reference to making sense, the researchers' experiments showed that increased GABA levels in the pallidum were associated with decreased pallidal activity, which diminished the importance of extrasynaptic GABAergic transmission in the primate pallidum.
(52a) Intracellular analysis of synaptic mechanisms controlling trigeminal motoneuron activity during sleep and wakefulness. Chandler SH, Chase MH and Nakamura Y. 1980. Journal of Neurophysiology, volume 44, pages 359-371.
(52b) Intracellular analysis of synaptic potentials induced in trigeminal jaw-closer motoneurons by pontomesencephalic reticular stimulation during sleep and wakefulness. Chandler SH, Nakamura Y and Chase MH. 1980. Journal of Neurophysiology, volume 44, pages 372-382.
(53) Different time courses of learning-related activity in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Pasupathy A and Miller EK. 2005. Nature, volume 433, pages 873-876. With reference to making sense, how can rapid changes be almost bistable? A change is from one state to another, while bistable means that there are two stable states. Could the researchers have meant that the striatum showed rapid changes from one stable state to another?
(54) Existing motor state in favored at the expense of new movement during 13-35 Hz oscillatory synchrony in the human corticospinal system. Gilbertson T, Lalo E, Doyle L, Di Lazzaro V, Cioni B and Brown P. 2005. Journal of Neuroscience, volume 25, pages 7771-7779.
(55) The ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere is overactive during hand movements in akinetic parkinsonian patients. Rascol O, Sabatini U, Fabre N, Brefel C, Loubinoux I, Celsis P, Senard JM, Montastruc JL and Chollet F. 1997. Brain, volume 120, pages 103-110. [If this reference has been accessed through reference (1558), then that reference page can be viewed underneath this reference page].
(56) Motor reorganizaton in asymptomatic carriers of a single mutant Parkin allele; a human model for presymptomatic parkinsonism. Buhmann C, Binkofski F, Klein C, Buchel C, van Eimeren T, Erdmann C, Hedrich K, Kasten M, Hagenah J, Deuschl G, Pramstaller PP and Siebner HR. 2005. Brain, volume 128, pages 2281-2290.
With reference to hyperbole, the state of knowledge of functional MRI did not warrant use of the adjective "synaptic" in relation to mapped activity.
(57) Genome sequencing in microfabricated high-density picolitre reactors. Margulies M et al. 2005. Nature, volume 437, pages 376-380. Comment. Massively parallel sequencing. Rogers Y-H and Venter JC. 2005. Nature, volume 437, pages 326-327.
(58) Reducing the uncertainty: gating of peripheral inputs by zona incerta. Trageser JC and Keller A. 2004. Journal of Neuroscience, volume 24, pages 8911-8915.
With reference to anaesthetics, the weak and labile responses of the POm neurones were not surprising given that the rats had been "narcotized", which possibility the researchers did not consider: it could have been invoked as an explanation for the later finding of a lack of response of 30% of neurones to ZI inactivation. The "narcotized" state of the rats may have set thresholds to sensory stimulation.
(59) Gating of somatosensory evoked potentials during different kinds of movement in man. Rushton DN, Rothwell JC and Craggs MD. 1981. Brain, volume 104, pages 465-491.
With reference to convergence, did the N20-P30 primary cortical response differ if the movement was initiated by a remembered instruction compared with a perceived instruction?
With reference to the inconsistent use of quotation marks around the word "gated", the lack of electromyography meant that the "gating" explanation was difficult to disprove.
(60) Localization, timing and specifity of gating of somatosensory evoked potentials during active movement in man. Cohen LG and Starr A. 1987. Brain, volume 110, pages 451-467.
With reference to convergence, the design did not exclude the possibility that the gating was due to competition for transmission through the midbrain between the order to move and the median nerve stimulation, which would not have affected the early lemniscal P14 and which could have produced gating 80-100ms before EMG onset. This possibility could have been addressed if the order to move had been remembered, rather than perceived. The unaffected N20 is problematic for both the explanation in terms of midbrain convergence and the researchers' thalamocortical explanation, and, again, this could have been addressed by comparison of the N20 when the order was perceived and when it was remembered.