(81) Regional cerebral flow throughout the sleep-wake cycle. An H2 (15) O PET study. Braun AR, Balkin TJ, Wesenten NJ, Carson RE, Varga M, Baldwin P, Selbie S, Belenky G and Herskovitch P. 1997. Brain, volume 120, pages 1173-1197.
(82) Brainstem control of the events of REM sleep. Vertes RP. 1984. Progress in Neurobiology, volume 22, pages 241-288.
(83) Sleep-related consolidation of a visuomotor skill: brain mechanisms as assessed by functional magnetic imaging. Maquet P, Schwartz S, Passingham R and Frith C. 2003. Journal of Neuroscience, volume 23, pages 1432-1440.
With reference to missing one set of quotation marks, "new trajectory. in the second paragraph after Fig 1.
With reference to random samples, what did the researchers mean by "pseudorandomized"? Why did the researchers "pseudorandomize"? What were the group characteristics of age and gender after "pseudorandomization"? Having stated that "The subjects were prospectively pseudorandomized into two groups...", the researchers continued two paragraphs later that "the subjects were randomly assigned to each experimental group...".
With reference to a debrief, the researchers stated that none of 23 subjects was aware that a test had changed from having an unpredictable vertical axis to having an unpredictable horizontal axis. How was this tested? The subjects should have been asked to indicate if they had detected any differences between the two tests, and these results should have been compared between the two experimental groups. Do we really believe that none of 23 subjects said "yes" to that question?
(84) Overnight verbal memory retention correlates with the number of sleep spindles. Clemens Z, Fabo D and Halasz P. 2005. Neuroscience, volume 132, pages 529-535.
(85) Descending pathways from the paraventricular nucleus contribute to the recruitment of brainstem nuclei following a systemic immune challenge. Buller KM, Dayas CV and Day TA. 2003. Neuroscience, volume 118, pages 189-203.
With reference to the title and the content of the abstract, the title was not proven by the content of the abstract, of which the researchers were fully aware, given the penultimate sentence of the abstract: "Thus the present study shows that the PVN has the capacity to modulate NTS and VLM responses after an immune challenge, and that these may result from descending projections arising in the medial and lateral PVN divisions." "capacity" is singular so that "these" should read "this". "may result" is the subjunctive mood, whereas "contribute" in the title is the indicative mood.
With reference to consistent language, see the previous paragraph.
(86) Categorically distinct acute stressors elicit dissimilar transcriptional profiles in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Reyes TM, Walker JR, DeCino C, Hogenesch JB and Sawchenko PE. 2003. Journal of Neuroscience, volume 23, pages 5607-5616.
The researchers included the arcuate nucleus in the design, and this showed profiling results similar to those obtained from PVH dissections, although data were not shown, and so there were no tests of statistical significance. So why did the researchers not include the arcuate nucleus in the title?
(87) Neural substrates for behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression in the rat. Pacheco-Lopez G, Niemi MB, Kou W, Harting M, Fandrey J and Schedlowski M. 2005. Journal of Neuroscience, volume 25, pages 2330-2337.
With reference to an unexplained acronym, PBS, in the Conditioning protocol.
With reference to the content of an article making sense, in the legend to Figure 1, the researchers state what one would expect, that: "The CsA-treated group just received intraperitoneal CsA injections at all acquisitions and evocation trials." However, in the Conditioning protocol, in their description of the evocation phase, the researchers state that: "The CsA group received water and intraperitoneal CsA injections during the morning session and Sac each afternoon session." CsA was cyclosporin A and Sac was saccharin.
(88) Rapid changes in production and behavioral action of oestrogens. Balthazart J, Cornil CA, Taziaux M, Charlier TD, Baillien M and Ball GF. 2006. Neuroscience, volume 138, pages 783-791.
(89) Trajectories of cholinergic pathways within the cerebral hemispheres of the human brain. Selden NR, Gitelman DR, Salamon-Murayama N, Parrish TB and Mesulam M.-M. 1998. Brain, volume 121, pages 2249-2257.
(90) Electrophysiological evidence for the existence of a posterior cortical-prefrontal-basal forebrain circuitry in modulating sensory responses in visual and somatosensory rat cortical areas. Golmayo I, Nunez A and Zaborszky L. 2003. Neuroscience, volume 119, pages 597-609.
This abstract becomes elliptical to the point of incomprehensibility: does the sentence "Atropine blocked both facilitatory effects." apply to both BF and PFC stimulation, or to both "somatosensory-responsive" prefrontal area stimulation and "visually-responsive" prefrontal area stimulation? The sudden hyphenation of "prefrontal" and "area", and a change from "-basal" in the title to "-basalo-"in the text add to the uncertainties.