(91) Cholinergic basal forebrain neurons burst with theta during waking and paradoxical sleep. Lee MG, Hassani OK, Alonso A and Jones BE. 2005. Journal of Neuroscience, volume 25, pages 4365-4369.
This study began with 45 rats resulting in 34 cells stained with neurobiotin, of which cells 5 were positive for choline acetyltransferase, of which cells 1 was in the substantia innominata. It is unclear from how many of the 45 rats the sets of 34 and 5 cells were derived, so that the statistical independence of the observations is in doubt. The researchers' conclusions have been drawn from very small numbers of individuals and are thus subject to sampling error. The failure to acknowledge this is inadvertent social information about the researchers and the editor.
(92) A dissociation of encoding and retrieval processes in the human hippocampus. Eldridge LL, Engel SA, Zeineh MM, Bookheimer SY and Knowlton BJ. 2005. Journal of Neuroscience, volume 25, pages 3280-3286.
(93) Autonomic brainstem nuclei are linked to the hippocampus. Castle M, Comoli E and Loewy AD. 2005. Neuroscience, volume 134, pages 657-669.
(94) Hippocampal theta-related cellular activity in the superior colliculus of the urethane-anesthetized rat. Natsume K, Hallworth NE, Szgatti TL and Bland BH. 1999. Hippocampus, volume 9, pages 500-509.
With reference to multiple measures of the same subject, were the 93 cells described in the abstract all in the same rat?
With reference to an unexplained acronym, "PH".
With reference to the content of an abstract making sense, the procedures described in the first sentence of the abstract do not include "electrical stimulaton of the PH" which appears for the first time in the last sentence of the abstract.
(95) The hippocampus as a spatial map. Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely-moving rat. O'Keefe J and Dostrovsky J. 1971. Brain Research, volume 34, pages 171-175.
With reference to the content of the article reflecting its title, it is difficult to accept that rats that had to be restrained to produce the unit activity under study were "freely-moving".
With reference to italics, "situated in a particular part of the testing platform facing in a particular direction."
With reference to "anticipate", the episode with the beaker showed that the rat's orientation was conditioned by visceral stimuli. The researchers could have tested this by trying to extinguish the responses at A and B through visceral reinforcement at locations other than A and B.
(96) Putting fear in its place: remapping of hippocampal place cells during fear conditioning. Moita MA, Rosis S, Zhou Y, LeDoux JE and Blair HT. 2004. Journal of Neuroscience, volume 24, pages 7015-7023.
The researchers did not consider the possibility that "remapping" was due to alterations in the input of food and drink, or in the output of faeces and urine, all of which could have been measured. "Freezing" would have reduced input and could have affected output.
(97) Reciprocal connections between the entorhinal cortex and hippocampal fields CA1 and the subiculum are in register with the projections from CA1 to the subiculum. Naber PA, Lopes da Silva FH and Witter MP. 2001. Hippocampus, volume 11, pages 99-104.
With reference to the content of the abstract making sense, the subjects are unspecified.
(98) Parallel activation of field CA2 and dentate gyrus by synaptically elicited perforant path volleys. Bartesaghi R and Gessi T. 2004. Hippocampus, volume 14, pages 948-963.
With reference to the content of the abstract making sense, the researchers state that there was no discharge of CA3 pyramidal neurones, in spite of the early current in CA3 and the late response through Schaffer collaterals from field CA3.
(99) Two reentrant pathways in the hippocampal-entorhinal system. Kloosterman F, van Haeften T and Lopes da Silva FH. 2004. Hippocampus, volume 14, pages 1026-1039.
(100) Electrophysiological evidence using focal flash photolysis of caged glutamate that CA1 pyramidal cells receive excitatory synaptic input from the subiculum. Shao LR and Dudek FE. 2005. Journal of Neurophysiology, volume 93, pages 3007-3011.
With reference to validity, the researchers claimed to have validated the procedure, but all they did was to show that both a flash and caged glutamate were needed to excite a neurone.
With reference to conclusions extending beyond results, the researchers generalised their results to the normal adult rat, in spite of an experiment in vitro, an unvalidated technique, only 6 of 24 cells responsive from an unknown number of rats, and no tests of statistical significance.